The most successful measures, such as Civil War pensions and Social Security, have, in fact, been those that ensured entitlements to cross-class categories of beneficiaries.
Left out of the pension system were Southern whites and most Southern blacks as well as most immigrants from southern and central Europe, who came to America after the Civil War and were then disproportionately low-skilled urban workers. Economic Security for the Elderly.
We still live amidst the political backlash against the War on Poverty and the Great Society. Nationwide citizen support never emerged for this program as it did for Social Security. Such aid is consonant with American values because adults would be self-supporting, not put on a permanent public dole.
Theda Skocpol Summer The history of social policy has a clear lesson. By approximately 29 percent of American men over age 65 along with approximately 8 percent of elderly women and various other younger women, children, and other dependents of deceased men were receiving benefits that were remarkably generous by contemporary international standards.
That may well be the reason why cross-national research on social expenditures finds that in democracies universal programs are more sustainable, even if more expensive, than policies targeted to the poor or other "marginal" social groups.
At the same time, the present welfare system traps many single mothers into a stark choice between low-paid, unskilled work and welfare benefits available only if the mother does not work a situation that may encourage her to have more children.
To be honest, the problem of paying the bills and providing food is simple compared to the issues involved when people you are close to need help, and because of complications you cannot provide it.
Support declined especially for stigmatized service programs popularly identified with poor blacks. The problems of single-parent families now cross class and racial lines, since about half of marriages today end in divorce and only about half of divorced mothers actually receive child support.
A different version of this article with full references is forthcoming in The Urban Underclass, edited by Paul E. If only the poor could be more organized.
But there is no question that the elderly benefit most of all. Antipoverty warriors can argue that nowhere near enough was ever done or spent to make either services or transfers sufficient to end poverty or to reduce pathologies among the severely disadvantaged.
Electorally, blacks in general remained staunchly Democratic and in favor of strengthened governmental social programs. As for guilt, be honestly charitable and have good use for yourself to save or spend, or for others for every single dollar you have, and you will never feel guilt.
They simply have not faced up to the hard political questions: This situation discourages welfare recipients from moving off welfare and arouses taxpayer resistance to improved public health provision. Some folks are curious [about] why food banks are putting resources into supporting federal programs.
What does outreach consist of?In 26 states, AFDC benefits alone fell 64 percent short of the poverty guidelines, and the addition of food stamps only reduced this gap to 35 percent (Staff of House Committee on Ways and Means, ).
Social Security is the most effective poverty-reducing program even for non-elderly families, who receive disability, unemployment, and survivors' benefits. But there is no question that the elderly benefit most of all.
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It is an inspiring learning aid that will challenge you into immediate action and transforms the way you think about your life. -Poverty, social security, and stigma-Kate Bell Social security-this article defines social security as ' a way of helping to reduce the stigma of poverty, providing enough for people to participate in society, without being reduced to charity '.
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The Benefits and Drawbacks of Money and Success and the Stigma of Poverty PAGES 5.
WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: success, money, bell hooks, seeing and making culture representing the poor. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University.Download