The birth of realism and naturalism after the civil war

American Civil War -- the last decade of the 19th century I.

In Black and White Strangers, Kenneth Warren suggests that a basic difference between realism and sentimentalism is that in realism, "the redemption of the individual lay within the social world," but in sentimental fiction, "the redemption of the social world lay with the individual" They formed an important part of the realistic movement.

Pizer suggests that "whatever was being produced in fiction during the s and s that was new, interesting, and roughly similar in a number of ways can be designated as realism, and that an equally new, interesting, and roughly similar body of writing produced at the turn of the century can be designated as naturalism" 5.

Class is important; the novel has traditionally served the interests and aspirations of an insurgent middle class. Howells were based in New England. Although strictly speaking, realism is a technique, it also denotes a particular kind of subject matter, especially the representation of middle-class life.

Local colorists concerned themselves with presenting and interpreting the local character of their regions. Selective presentation of reality with an emphasis on verisimilitude, even at the expense of a well-made plot Character is more important than action and plot; complex ethical choices are often the subject.

Objectivity in presentation becomes increasingly important: And Mark Twain had, as his aim of writing, the soul, the life, and the speech of the people in mind.

Howells to London, the term "realism" is difficult to define, in part because it is used differently in European contexts than in American literature. A Girl of the Streets is the first American naturalistic work.

Realist literature finds the drama and the tension beneath the ordinary surface of life. A reaction against romanticism, an interest in scientific method, the systematizing of the study of documentary history, and the influence of rational philosophy all affected the rise of realism.

Diction is natural vernacular, not heightened or poetic; tone may be comic, satiric, or matter-of-fact. Mark Twain is a representative.

Definitions Broadly defined as "the faithful representation of reality" or "verisimilitude," realism is a literary technique practiced by many schools of writing. They attempted to achieve extreme objectivity and frankness, presenting characters of low social and economic classes who were determined by their environment and heredity.

Put rather too simplistically, one rough distinction made by critics is that realism espousing a deterministic philosophy and focusing on the lower classes is considered naturalism. In American literature, the term "realism" encompasses the period of time from the Civil War to the turn of the century during which William Dean Howells, Rebecca Harding Davis, Henry James, Mark Twain, and others wrote fiction devoted to accurate representation and an exploration of American lives in various contexts.

Many critics have suggested that there is no clear distinction between realism and its related late nineteenth-century movement, naturalism. He believed that reality lies in the impressions made by life on the spectator, and not in any facts of which the spectator is unaware.

As the United States grew rapidly after the Civil War, the increasing rates of democracy and literacy, the rapid growth in industrialism and urbanization, an expanding population base due to immigration, and a relative rise in middle-class affluence provided a fertile literary environment for readers interested in understanding these rapid shifts in culture.

Local Colorism Local Colorism or Regionalism as first appeared in the late s and early seventies in America. In different periods, realism shows different features: Realism was a movement that encompassed the entire country, or at least the Midwest and South, although many of the writers and critics associated with realism notably W.

According to William Harmon and Hugh Holman, "Where romanticists transcend the immediate to find the ideal, and naturalists plumb the actual or superficial to find the scientific laws that control its actions, realists center their attention to a remarkable degree on the immediate, the here and now, the specific action, and the verifiable consequence" A Handbook to Literature Realism turned from an emphasis on the strange toward a faithful rendering of the ordinary, a slice of life as it is really lived.

American Naturalism Naturalism was an outgrowth of Realism that responded to theories in science, psychology, human behavior and social thought current in the late nineteenth century.

The realism of James and Twain was critically acclaimed in twentieth century; Howellsian realism fell into disfavor as part of early twentieth century rebellion against the "genteel tradition. It had been shaped by the war, by the social upheavals that undermined the comforting faith of an earlier age, and by the disturbing teachings of Darwinism.

And Henry James is considered the founder of psychological realism. Interior or psychological realism a variant form. Among the Midwestern writers considered realists would be Joseph Kirkland, E.

Although it lost its momentum toward the end of the nineteenth century, the local spirit continued to inspire and fertilize the imagination of authors such as Willa Cather, John Steinbeck and William Faulkner.

They tended to idealize and glorify, but they never forgot to keep an eye on the truthful color of local life. In drawing attention to this connection, Amy Kaplan has called realism a "strategy for imagining and managing the threats of social change" Social Construction of American Realism ix.

It expresses the concern for commonplace and the low, and it offers an objective rather than an idealistic view of human nature and human experience. Realistic novels avoid the sensational, dramatic elements of naturalistic novels and romances.Uncle Tom's Cabin and the American Civil War Next Lesson The Literary Realism Movement: A Response to Romanticism Chapter 7 / Lesson 1 Transcript.

Miller. "Religion and the American Civil War." Religion and the American Civil War.

An Online Resource Guide, n.d. Web. 09 Jan. "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass an American Slave." Goodreads. Goodreads, n.d. Web. 11 Jan. "Naturalism Period of American Literature - " Naturalism Period of American Literature - In American literature, the term "realism" encompasses the period of time from the Civil War to the turn of the century during which William Dean Howells, Rebecca Harding Davis, Henry James, Mark Twain, and others wrote fiction devoted to accurate representation and an.

Start studying The Civil War and the Frontier. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Realism and Naturalism. Realism. Realistic--could happen. Naturalism. After the Civil War "Maggie: A Girl of the Streets" Novel by Stephen Crane about a homeless orphan.

American Realism, Naturalism and Regionalism sweeping economic, social, and political changes that took place in post-war life allowed American Realism to prevail. • roots of American realism lie in the experiences of the Civil War, the frontier, and in cities.

I. Realism. 1. background. The Civil War () Fast growing of the United States due to the time of steel and steam, electricity and oil. 2.

definition of American Realism. The Age of Realism came into existence after Romanticism with the Civil War.

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The birth of realism and naturalism after the civil war
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