Inwhen Henry lapsed into insanity, a powerful baronial clique, backed by Warwick, installed York, as protector of the realm.
During the fortnight of debate the Lancastrians regrouped, and when Richard met them at Wakefieldhe was defeated and killed.
Edward IV went into brief exile in the Netherlands. Henry recovered and in February he relieved York of his office of Protector. At this stage, few of the nobles supported such drastic action, and York was forced to submit to superior force at Blackheath.
Demands for money, purveyances, and commissions of array increased the burdens but not the benefits of Lancastrian rule. England soon lost all its French possessions apart from Gascony Bordeaux.
Margaret built up an alliance against Richard and conspired with other nobles to reduce his influence. Margaret persuaded Henry to revoke the appointments York had made as Protector, while York was made to return to his post as lieutenant in Ireland.
This union ended the Wars of the Roses and gave rise to the Tudor Dynasty. The Mortimers were members of the most powerful marcher family of the fourteenth century. InHenry suffered the first of several bouts of complete mental collapse, during which he failed even to recognise his new-born son, Edward of Westminster.
Fearing his days were numbered, Richard formed an army commanded by Lord Salisbury. The quarrel between the Percys—long the Earls of Northumberland—and the comparatively upstart Nevilles followed this pattern, as did the feud between the Courtenays and Bonvilles in Cornwall and Devon.
The king fell ill again in the autumn ofand York was again protector for a brief period; the king, however, recovered early in In France Warwick regrouped the Yorkist forces and returned to England in Junedecisively defeating the Lancastrian forces at Northampton July The rebels occupied parts of London, but were driven out by the citizens after some of them fell to looting.
Throughout his reign, Richard had repeatedly switched his choice of heir in order to keep his political enemies at bay  and perhaps to reduce the chances of deposition. Trevelyan has written that "the Wars of the Roses were to a large extent a quarrel between Welsh Marcher Lordswho were also great English nobles, closely related to the English throne.
Albans May 22,resulted in a Yorkist victory and four years of uneasy truce. Weeks later, they were crushed by the Lancastrians at the Second Battle of St. Edward arranged strong marriages for them with English heiresses and created the first ever English dukedoms: York tried to claim the throne but settled for the right to succeed upon the death of Henry.
After the death of his uncle, John, Duke of Bedford inhe was surrounded by quarrelsome councillors and advisors.
Yet this system can be seen as promoting stability in periods of strong rule as well as undermining weak rule such as that of Henry VI. The first battle of the wars, at St. Henry, who had three younger brothers and was himself in his prime and recently married to the French princess, Catherine of Valois  had no doubt that the Lancastrian right to the crown was secure.
The open breach between the king and the earl came in By autumn ofHenry and his queen had once again mustered a significant army, which now included many York deserters.
A series of coups and counter-coups, intrigue and murder gripped the throne.In the opening battle of England’s War of the Roses, the Yorkists defeat King Henry VI’s Lancastrian forces at St. Albans, 20 miles northwest of London.
A civil war over the succession to the throne is raging in England, a conflict that has become known as the War of the Roses. The revolting House of Lancaster is seeking foreign aid and has sent us an envoy with a request for troops. The Wars of the Roses were a series of bloody civil wars for the throne of England between two competing royal families: the House of York and the House of Lancaster, both members of the age-old royal Plantagenet family.
In the Wars of the Roses, most of the fighting occurred in England, and thus the loss of life and property was much greater for English citizens. It was a struggle to claim the throne between the families descended from Edward III.
The name "Wars of the Roses" refers to the heraldic badges associated with two rival branches of the same royal house, the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. Wars of the Roses came into common use in the 19th century after the publication in of Anne of Geierstein by Sir Walter Scott.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic wars fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the houses of Lancaster and York (whose heraldic symbols were the red and the white House of York: House of Lancaster.Download